What is earth's lower mantle made of?

Question
Answer 1

Iron and nickel, with a few lighter elements like silicon or oxygen.

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Answer 2

It's made of silicates and oxides. The most abundant elements there are oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron and calcium.

2) Mineral structure: this applies especially to silicates, which are "perovskite silicates" instead of ordinary silicates. In ordinary silicates we see silicon form four covalent bonds to oxygen, filling up the usual "octet" of valence electron states. Under the high pressure inside the lower mantle, however, the silicon atoms will form six bonds making #SiO_6# octahedra (like sulfur does in the "expanded octet" molecule #SF_6#).
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Answer 3
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