# What is Integration by Substitution?

Integration by substitution - also known as the "change-of-variable rule" - is a technique used to find integrals of some slightly trickier functions than standard integrals. It is useful for working with functions that fall into the class of some function multiplied by its derivative.

Say we wish to find the integral

We can substitute both of these new functions into the original equation.

We're not quite there yet! When we change the variable, we also need to change the terminals of the integral.

This is now an integral we can work with. The answer will be correct only if you have correctly changed the terminals.

The process is very similar for finding antiderivatives (or indefinite integrals). The only difference is that we have no terminals to work with, so instead of changing the terminals in the middle, we substitute the original variable at the end. Let's say we have our original integral without terminals:

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Integration by substitution, also known as u-substitution, is a technique used to simplify the integration of functions by replacing variables within the integral. This method is particularly useful for integrating composite functions or functions containing nested expressions. The substitution involves choosing a new variable (often denoted as u) such that the integral becomes simpler to evaluate. The steps typically involve identifying an appropriate substitution, replacing variables, finding the differential of the new variable, rewriting the integral in terms of the new variable, integrating with respect to the new variable, and finally, substituting back the original variable. This technique is based on the chain rule for differentiation and can significantly simplify complex integrals.

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