What are all the important formulas for the chapter Thermodynamics?
Formulaes are in the following:
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Some important formulas for the chapter Thermodynamics include:

First Law of Thermodynamics: [ \Delta U = Q  W ] where: ( \Delta U ) is the change in internal energy, ( Q ) is the heat added to the system, and ( W ) is the work done by the system.

Work done by gas (Isothermal): [ W = P \Delta V ]

Work done by gas (Adiabatic): [ W = \frac{{P_1V_1  P_2V_2}}{{\gamma  1}} ] where: ( P_1 ) and ( P_2 ) are the initial and final pressures, respectively, ( V_1 ) and ( V_2 ) are the initial and final volumes, respectively, and ( \gamma ) is the ratio of specific heats.

Heat transferred during a phase change: [ Q = mL ] where: ( Q ) is the heat transferred, ( m ) is the mass, and ( L ) is the latent heat of the substance.

Ideal Gas Law: [ PV = nRT ] where: ( P ) is the pressure, ( V ) is the volume, ( n ) is the number of moles, ( R ) is the ideal gas constant, and ( T ) is the temperature in Kelvin.

Entropy change in a reversible process: [ \Delta S = \frac{Q}{T} ] where: ( \Delta S ) is the change in entropy, ( Q ) is the heat added to the system, and ( T ) is the temperature in Kelvin.

Carnot Efficiency: [ \text{Efficiency} = \frac{{T_h  T_c}}{{T_h}} ] where: ( T_h ) is the absolute temperature of the hot reservoir, and ( T_c ) is the absolute temperature of the cold reservoir.
These are some of the important formulas in the chapter of Thermodynamics.
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When evaluating a onesided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.
When evaluating a onesided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.
When evaluating a onesided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.
When evaluating a onesided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.
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