How would you convert an aldehyde to a ketone?

Answer 1

If you think about it, all you do is add a carbon, so what you need is a nucleophile that can attack at the carbonyl carbon that looks like an #\mathbf"R"# group.

A straightforward solution is #"R"-"MgBr"#, an alkyl Grignard reagent that acts like an alkyl anionic nucleophile.

where #R"_1# and #"R"_2# merely differentiate between unique #"R"# groups. The only problem is that the tetrahedral intermediate, after being protonated, no longer possesses a carbonyl group. So you have to oxidize it to turn it back into one.

Overall:

  1. Attack the carbonyl with an alkyl Grignard reagent to tack on the alkyl group.
  2. The acid protonates the alkoxide to finish the first step, and the water that remains deactivates the alkyl Grignard reagent back into an alkane.
  3. PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate) oxidizes the hydroxyl group into a carbonyl group via a #beta#-elimination of the explicit proton.

    PCC looks like this:

    What's special about it is that it oxidizes alcohols one step forward, i.e. primary alcohol to aldehyde, or secondary alcohol to ketone.

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Answer 2

An aldehyde can be converted to a ketone through a process called oxidation. This can be achieved by using strong oxidizing agents, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or chromium trioxide (CrO3) in the presence of an acidic or basic medium. The aldehyde undergoes oxidation to form a carboxylic acid intermediate, which then undergoes further oxidation to yield the corresponding ketone. Alternatively, aldehydes can also be converted to ketones through the use of reducing agents, such as Wolff-Kishner reduction or Clemmensen reduction, followed by oxidation of the resulting alcohol functional group to the ketone.

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Answer from HIX Tutor

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

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