# How does resistance relate to conductivity?

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Resistance is inversely proportional to conductivity and can be expressed through the formula: $R = \frac{1}{\sigma A}$, where $R$ is resistance, $\sigma$ is conductivity, and $A$ is the cross-sectional area.

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When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

- An electric toy car with a mass of #2 kg# is powered by a motor with a voltage of #9 V# and a current supply of #4 A#. How long will it take for the toy car to accelerate from rest to #2/5 m/s#?
- An electric toy car with a mass of #4 kg# is powered by a motor with a voltage of #15 V# and a current supply of #3 A#. How long will it take for the toy car to accelerate from rest to #5 m/s#?
- An electric toy car with a mass of #3 kg# is powered by a motor with a voltage of #7 V# and a current supply of #3 A#. How long will it take for the toy car to accelerate from rest to #5/3 m/s#?
- A charge of #9 C# is passing through points A and B on a circuit. If the charge's electric potential changes from #17 J# to #11 J#, what is the voltage between points A and B?
- How does the electrical circuit in my flashlight work?

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