# How do you find the antiderivative of #int (xsinxcosx) dx#?

If you are studying maths, then you should learn the formula for Integration By Parts (IBP), and practice how to use it:

I was taught to remember the less formal rule in word; "The integral of udv equals uv minus the integral of vdu". If you struggle to remember the rule, then it may help to see that it comes a s a direct consequence of integrating the Product Rule for differentiation.

Essentially we would like to identify one function that simplifies when differentiated, and identify one that simplifies when integrated (or is at least is integrable).

Firstly we need to chage the integrand to simplify it to a product of two functions whereas currently we have a product of three;

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To find the antiderivative of ( \int x \sin(x) \cos(x) , dx ), we can use integration by parts. Integration by parts is based on the formula:

[ \int u , dv = uv - \int v , du ]

Let's choose ( u = x ) and ( dv = \sin(x) \cos(x) , dx ). Then, we have ( du = dx ) and ( v = -\frac{1}{2} \sin^2(x) ).

Applying the integration by parts formula:

[ \int x \sin(x) \cos(x) , dx = x \left( -\frac{1}{2} \sin^2(x) \right) - \int \left( -\frac{1}{2} \sin^2(x) \right) , dx ]

Simplify and integrate the second term:

[ = -\frac{1}{2}x \sin^2(x) + \frac{1}{2} \int \sin^2(x) , dx ]

Next, use the identity ( \sin^2(x) = \frac{1}{2}(1 - \cos(2x)) ):

[ = -\frac{1}{2}x \sin^2(x) + \frac{1}{4} \int (1 - \cos(2x)) , dx ]

[ = -\frac{1}{2}x \sin^2(x) + \frac{1}{4} \left( x - \frac{1}{2} \sin(2x) \right) + C ]

Where ( C ) is the constant of integration. Thus, the antiderivative of ( \int x \sin(x) \cos(x) , dx ) is:

[ -\frac{1}{2}x \sin^2(x) + \frac{1}{4} \left( x - \frac{1}{2} \sin(2x) \right) + C ]

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When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

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