How do electrons move in AC circuit?

Answer 1

They simply oscillate around a point of equilibrium; they "don't move."

An AC current's electrons simply move forward and backward; this can be observed by examining the intensity vs. time graphic. Occasionally, the electrons move in a positive direction (moving right), half a cycle later, they move in a negative direction (moving left), and when I=0, they do not move at all (changing from going right to going left, like an harmonic oscillator).

In light of the fact that photons, the bosons of the electromagnetic field, travel at the speed of light, the question of how AC works in the absence of moving electrons is answered by the fact that the electric field created by the electrons moving all of them to the right or left is "instantly" felt at the end of the cable (though this is not quite accurate).

Thus, the electrons at the beginning of the cable move in a manner similar to that of a harmonic oscillator, and "instantly" all of the electrons at the end of the cable—and these are the ones that are utilized to perform electric work—move in precisely the same manner.

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Answer 2

In an AC (alternating current) circuit, electrons oscillate back and forth, changing direction periodically in response to the alternating voltage supplied by the source. As the voltage alternates, the electrons experience a push-pull effect, moving forward during one half-cycle and backward during the other half-cycle. This oscillatory motion of electrons constitutes the flow of alternating current in the circuit.

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Answer from HIX Tutor

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

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