How do dipole dipole forces differ from hydrogen bonds?

Answer 1

Well, hydrogen bonding is a special case of dipole-dipole interaction….

When hydrogen binds to a strongly electronegative element—such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine—it forms a hydrogen bond. The heteroatom gains a partial negative charge due to its POLAR nature, and we can depict the molecular dipoles as...

#""^(""^+delta)H-F^(delta^-)#, #""^(""^+delta)H_3N^(delta^-)#, or #""^(""^+delta)H_2O^(delta^-)#
...in aggregate, i.e. in the bulk phase, the dipoles line up, and this interaction constitutes a POTENT intermolecular force. And this is expressed by the high normal boiling points of the hydride compounds...water has a ridiculously high boiling point...so does ammonia, at #-33.3# #""^@C#, and so does #HF#, at #+19# #""^@C#. For such SMALL molecules, these volatilities are LOW, and hydrogen-bonding, as a strong intermolecular force of interaction, is responsible.

However, when two elements with unequal electronegativities chemically bond, molecular dipoles are created. This can result in some intermolecular interaction and possibly higher boiling points, but in the case of hydrogen bonding, the effects are much smaller.

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Answer 2

Dipole-dipole forces result from the attraction between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule, whereas hydrogen bonds are a specific type of dipole-dipole interaction that occurs between a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and a lone pair of electrons on another electronegative atom in a nearby molecule. Hydrogen bonds are typically stronger than regular dipole-dipole forces due to the high electronegativity of the hydrogen-bonded atom and the small size of the hydrogen atom, which leads to a strong partial positive charge.

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Answer from HIX Tutor

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

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