# How can the absolute age of earth layers be determined?

Almost entirely by radiometric age dating of certain minerals.

Scientists discovered that certain elements decay into other elements at a very constant and predictable rate - called, the "half-life". For example, Uranium decays to lead, rubidium decays to strontium, potassium to argon and so on.

So, in the pic included if you start with a mineral that has say 25 of the yellow uranium atoms in it, after 1 billion years, 1/2 have decayed to thorium, after another billion years, another 1/2 have decayed to thorium, and so on. By knowing this decay half-life, the age of the sample, and hence the rocks the sample came from, can be determined.

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The absolute age of Earth layers can be determined through various methods, including radiometric dating, such as uranium-lead dating, potassium-argon dating, and carbon-14 dating. These techniques rely on measuring the decay of radioactive isotopes within the rocks or fossils found within the layers. Additionally, stratigraphic principles, such as superposition and cross-cutting relationships, are used to correlate layers and establish relative ages, which can then be further refined using radiometric dating.

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When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

When evaluating a one-sided limit, you need to be careful when a quantity is approaching zero since its sign is different depending on which way it is approaching zero from. Let us look at some examples.

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